【译】React.js教程 第四部分:Express路由

2015年09月27日

技术系列笔记均已迁移至GitBook,更多React的内容请到:http://jimmylv.gitbooks.io/learning-react-js/content/reactjs_tutorial/reactjs_tutorial_part_4.html

React.js Tutorial Part 4

原文地址:http://www.joshfinnie.com/blog/reactjs-tutorial-part-4/

Welcome to part 4 of my React.js/Express.js app tutorial. In this blog post, we are going to create the necessary Express routes to serve json code to our React.js frontend application. We are also going to very rudimentarily hook up these calls to our server it our React.js component so that the json can be rendered.

欢迎来到React.js/Express.js教程的第四部分。在这篇博客文章里,我们将会创建必要的Express路由来将json代码提供给我们的React.js前端应用程序使用。我们也准备让React.js组件得以初步调用我们的服务器,以便于json数据可以被渲染。

Express Routes | Express 路由

The first thing we want to do is to create an Express.js route that will serve a json response when a certain URL is hit. This is actually very easy to accomplish within the Express.js framework. The setup of the Express.js website, which was auto-generated for us in Part 1 of this tutorial does a good job of getting us started, but to continue, we want to add some more files to help keep things organized for us.

我们想要做的第一件事情就是创建一个Express.js路由,以便于一个具体的URL被点击的时候返回一个json。通过Express.js框架很轻松就可以达成目标。关于安装Express.js网站,在教程的第一部分已经为我们自动生成了,可以很好地用于入门。但是接下来,我们想要添加一些文件来保持组织性。

So before anything else we want to create another file to keep our API routes. This file will be called routes/api.js simply enough. Then we have to edit app.js a bit to make sure we can use this new file. In app.js we want to modify var routes = require('./routes/index'); to be something a little more useful to us: var index = require('./routes/index');. Then directly below that we want to add our new API routes: var api = require('./routes/api');. Lastly, we want to add these to our app by adding: app.use('/api/', api);. Our app.js file should, partially, look like this:

所以在其他事情开始之前,我们想要创建另外的文件来存放API路由。这个文件叫做routes/api.js就可以了,然后我们就需要稍微改变一下app.js来保证我们可以使用新文件。在app.js中,我们把var routes = require('./routes/index');修改成其他更有用的形式:var index = require('./routes/index');。然后直接在底下添加想要的新的API路由:var api = require('./routes/api');。最后,把这些东西添加至appapp.use('/api/', api);。我们的app.js就应该有点模样了:

...

var index = require('./routes/index');
var api = require('./routes/api');

...

app.use('/', index);
app.use('/api/', api);

...

Now we can add a jobs route to our routes/api.js and start serving json through our Express.js app.

现在我们可以添加jobs路由到我们routes/api.js,然后通过Express.js应用提供json

API Routes | API 路由

There are a lot of resources out there about “Restful” API structure, but Tuts+ does a pretty good job and I don’t want to dedicate too much time to it; this part of the tutorial does not really need a lot of REST endpoints.

这儿有很多关于”Restful” API架构的资源,而Tuts+就是一个非常棒的教程,我不想再花费太多时间去解释它了。本教程的这部分其实也不需要非常多的REST端口。

But let’s write our first GET endpoint which will list out all the jobs we have available. First, we want to steal the jobs object from our React.js code and move it into routes/api.js then we want an endpoint that will return that object is json form. This is done by the following code:

但是让我们来写第一个GET端口,用于列举已有的所有工作信息。首先,我们想要从React.js代码中把jobs对象拿出来,然后放到routes/api.js里,从而我们就需要一个端口可以返回json形式的对象。通过以下代码可以实现:

var express = require('express');
var router = express.Router();

var jobs = {
    jobs: [
        {
            job_id: 1,
            company: 'TrackMaven',
            position: 'Software Maven',
            local: 'Washington, DC, USA',
            lookingFor: '*Angular*.js, Django, ElasticSearch',
            postedDate: '4 April 2015',
            description: '',
            category: 'Engineering'
        },
        {
            job_id: 2,
            company: 'TrackMaven',
            position: 'Junior Software Maven',
            local: 'Washington, DC, USA',
            lookingFor: 'Javascript, Python',
            postedDate: '4 April 2015',
            description: '',
            category: 'Engineering'
        }
    ]
}

router.get('/jobs', function(req, res) {
    res.json({data: jobs});
});

module.exports = router;

The object is almost a direct copy that we had hardcoded within our React.js app, with a few modifications. Most importantly, we added the job_id variable. This will allow us to use our REST endpoints to return only one job posting, if we want to… which of course we do.

这个对象几乎就是一个直接拷贝,在React.js应用进行硬编码的基础之上带有一点儿修改。最重要的是,我们添加了job_id变量。这可以让我们使用REST端口,只返回唯一的工作岗位,如果我们想要……当然我们也做了。

To do that, it’s actually pretty simple. Using Express.js’s ability to know what URL parameters hit each endpoint, we can add an endpoint that looks like /api/jobs/1 and our router will know that we want the job with job_id == 1. To do this, add the following to routes/api.js:

做到这样实际上非常简单。使用Express.js可以知道每个端口中含有哪些URL参数,我们可以添加一个像/api/jobs/1这样的端口,然后我们的路由就会知道我们想要job_id == 1的这个工作信息。为此,可以给routes/api.js添加以下代码:

router.get('/jobs/:job_id', function(req, res) {
    var job_id = req.params.job_id;
    for (i = 0, len = data.jobs.length; i < len; i++) {
        if (data.jobs[i].job_id === parseInt(job_id)) {
            res.json({data: job});
        }
    }
    res.json({data: "No job found..."});
});

Please Note: This is not ideal, nor really even practical. In the real world, we would be searching for the job_id in a database, not this silly for -> if statement we are doing here. But that’s for a later tutorial!

请注意:这并不合适,也不具有可实践性。事实上,我们将会从数据库中查找job_id,而不是像我们这样很傻地使用for -> if语句。但那是之后的教程了!

With these two routes, we should be able to curl these two endpoints and get the following results:

通过这两个路由,我们就应该可以使用curl来访问这两个端口,得到以下结果:

$ curl localhost:3000/api/jobs
{"data":{"jobs":[{"job_id":1,"company":"TrackMaven","position":"Software Maven","local":"Washington, DC, USA","lookingFor":"*Angular*.js, Django, ElasticSearch","postedDate":"4 April 2015","description":"","category":"Engineering"},{"job_id":2,"company":"TrackMaven","position":"Junior Software Maven","local":"Washington, DC, USA","lookingFor":"Javascript, Python","postedDate":"4 April 2015","description":"","category":"Engineering"}]}}

$ curl localhost:3000/api/jobs/1
{"data":{"job_id":1,"company":"TrackMaven","position":"Software Maven","local":"Washington, DC, USA","lookingFor":"*Angular*.js, Django, ElasticSearch","postedDate":"4 April 2015","description":"","category":"Engineering"}}

$ curl localhost:3000/api/jobs/2
{"data":{"job_id":2,"company":"TrackMaven","position":"Junior Software Maven","local":"Washington, DC, USA","lookingFor":"Javascript, Python","postedDate":"4 April 2015","description":"","category":"Engineering"}}

That’s it! We have a very basic API that we can now have our React.js code talk to.

就是这样!我们有了一个非常基础的API,现在我们可以让React.js代码与之交互了。

React.js and APIs | React.js 和 APIs

When first interacting with APIs using React.js, I recommend just using the request packages. We will need to add this to our application, but that’s as easy as running npm install request --save.

第一次使用React.js与APIs交互的时候,我推荐使用request包就好了。我们需要把它添加至应用程序,但是只要简单运行一下npm install request --save

Once we have the request library installed, we need to do some modification to our public/javascripts/scr/Jobs.jsx file to get the data from our API. To do this, we need to slightly modify the getInitialState function and add the componentDidMount function. We no longer have an full initial state (just a skeleton of what we want our API to look like) since we want to get the data from the API once the component mounts to our application. Our entire public/javascripts/scr/Jobs.jsx now looks like this:

只要我们安装好了request库,我们还需要为public/javascripts/scr/Jobs.jsx文件做一些修改,得以从API中获取数据。为此,我们需要小小地修改一下getInitialState函数,并且添加componentDidMount函数。我们不再需要完整的初始化状态(就像我们需要的API标本那样),因为我们期望组件在装配到应用程序的时候就从API中获取数据。我们整个public/javascripts/scr/Jobs.jsx文件现在长这样:

    var React = require('react');
    var request = require('request');

    var Job = require('./Job.jsx');

    module.exports = React.createClass({
        getInitialState: function() {
            return {jobs: []}
        },

        componentDidMount: function() {
            request('http://localhost:3000/api/jobs/', function(error, response, body) {
                var result = JSON.parse(body);
                if (this.isMounted()) {
                    this.setState(result.data);
                }
            }.bind(this));
        },

        render: function(){
            return (
                <div className="list-group">
                    {this.state.jobs.map(function(job){
                        return (
                            <Job
                                key={job.job_id}
                                company={job.company}
                                position={job.position}
                                local={job.local}
                                lookingFor={job.lookingFor}
                                postedDate={job.postedDate}
                                description={job.description}
                                category={job.category}
                            />
                        )
                    })}
                </div>
            );
        }
    });

In the file above, you can see how we are using the request library to reach out to our newly created API and populate the state with the response. You can also see the modifications we made to render to allow for us to use the API. And that’s it, we should still have a working website that renders these two jobs, but now we are getting data from an API versus hardcoding it within our React.js component (even though we are still just hardcoding it within our API).

在上面的文件里,你可以看到我们如何使用request库从新建的API中获取到数据,并将返回值放入state中。你也可以看到我们在render中做了修改,使我们可以使用这个API。就是这样,我们还是拥有一个可工作的网站,并且渲染了这两个工作信息,但是现在我们的React.js组件是从API中获取数据,而不再是硬编码的(尽管我们的API里面还是硬编码的)。

Conclusion | 结论

With this part of our tutorial, we have our app now using the API to populate its data. We have a long road ahead before this actually becomes useful, but it’s a great start. Next time we will be introducing a way of routing in React.js so that we can not only see all the job posts, but we can drill down to each specific job post. We also need to hook up a database and start collecting data from React too. Please stay tuned!

通过这部分的教程,我们让应用程序通过API来获取它的数据。长路漫漫,其修远兮,但这是一个非常棒的开始。下一次我们会介绍在React.js里的路由方式,以便于我们不仅可以看到所有的工作岗位,还可以进一步查看每个特定的工作信息。我们还需要连接到数据库,并且从React中收集数据。请保持步调一致哟!


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